Parking Garage

Buchanan House Garage Repair

Repair and restoration of a three-story, below-grade parking facility in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington, Virginia. The considerably large rehabilitation project included repair of the deteriorated concrete of the post-tensioned (PT) elevated slab and restoration of the post-tensioned “button head” tendons structural system.

The project was unique and complicated from an engineering standpoint as it required the removal and repair/replacement of 322 “button head” wire post-tensioned tendons with original hardware and monostrand post-tension cables (without trenching and replacing sections) with a new “button-head” system.

Another unique repair procedure used was the repair & replacement of deteriorated concrete and the restoration of severely corroded and broken “button-head” tendons at isolated areas of approximately 85 – 100 SF of elevated PT slab, where post-tensioned systems spanned in both north-south and east-west directions.  The contractor performed original stressing procedures for stressing operation of four monostrand post-tensioned cables.

Overall services provided include: concrete repair and renovation, masonry repair and renovation, precast panel repair, caulking and sealing, reinforcement repair, waterproofing and protection as well as asphalt repair and replacement. We also contributed capital planning and budgeting, project management, structural evaluation and repair and technical support.

This project won the Excellence in Concrete Award for the Year 2009 by the American Concrete Institute.

Aventine of Alexandria Garage & Plaza Repair

SK&A’s Repair & Restoration Group provided an in-depth study and evaluation of the Aventine’s garage and plaza to develop repair quantity estimates and to initiate a structural repair and maintenance program.

The parking garage is a three-story, below-grade structure. The lowest level, is a five-inch thick concrete slab-on-grade, installed over a vapor barrier and six inches of compacted granular drainage fill, founded on engineered control fill and subgrade. Elevated parking decks are post-tensioned concrete flat slabs supported on reinforced concrete columns. 

The structural slabs were cast-in-place over steel cables wrapped in a greased plastic sheathing.  The slabs were designed as “two-way” slabs, reinforced with two-way post-tensioning (PT) tendons, as well as a nominal amount of conventional reinforcing bars.  A section of the garage structure had no post-tensioning and was reinforced wholly with mild steel reinforcing. The post-tensioning system specified in the original structural plans was an unbonded, monostrand tendon system conforming to ASTM A416.

SK&A’s survey found that the garage’s structural framing was in fair-to-poor condition and spalled, delaminated, and generally deteriorated concrete was found throughout the garage slab top surfaces and soffits.  Exposed post-tensioning cables and anchors were observed in a number of locations within the garage, along with broken PT tendons and corroded anchors were evident in those locations.  Areas of inadequate concrete cover over tendons were noted to the extent that the tendon sheathing wore off thus exposing the cables. Quantity summaries and budget estimates for the recommended repairs and preventive maintenance of the garage and plaza was developed by SK&A to initiate a repair program. 

SK&A developed schematic sketch and preliminary design details to explain suggested structural repairs of the deteriorated post tensioning tendons. Deficiencies were categorized and repair costs developed based on current unit cost data gathered for the Washington-Northern Virginia Metropolitan Area market.  The cost estimate presented took into account the application of a waterproofing membrane over selected areas of the B-1 level garage deck. 

Alexandria House Garage and Plaza Renovations

SK&A provided consulting services for the rehabilitation of the garage and plaza at the 23-story Alexandria House Condominiums.  Spanned over 28 months, the rehabilitation required major structural and waterproofing repairs to the three-level cast-in-place, concrete post-tensioned garage structure and plaza.

Highlights of the project included the removal and replacement of approximately 34,000 linear feet of post-tensioning cables, the installation of almost 8,000 linear feet of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips for flexural strengthening and slab crack control, and the removal and re-construction of a 15,500 sf plaza deck area that was severely deteriorated and needed to be upgraded for fire truck loading.

The project was given the Award of Excellence in the Garage/Plaza Repair Category from the International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI) in 2005.

4000 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Masonry Repairs

SK&A’s Repair & Restoration Group performed masonry repair services for a 16-story, multi-family residential building with an enclosed six-level parking garage under the building. The exterior walls of the building have punched windows set in extruded aluminum frames supported on composite brick and concrete masonry unit (CMU)-block infill walls.

The project’s purpose was to restore the masonry façade deterioration, such as cracks and bulging masonry, due to the lack of vertical and horizontal relief joints.  New steel shelf angles with flashing were installed at floor slab levels to provide new relief joints for future expansion and contraction of the face brick.  Extensive areas of masonry were removed and replaced due to  bulged brick areas which were becoming unstable.

The project scope also included masonry and limestone tuckpointing and repair, concrete steel column encasement repairs, installation of new steel shelf angles and flashing, window perimeter sealant removal and replacement, and window sill removal and replacement. Additionally, installation of new vertical control joints, remedial masonry ties and CMU backup wall removal and replacement was performed. 

1333 H Street, NW Garage/Façade Repairs and Roof Membrane Replacement

Located at the intersection of 14th and H Streets in DC’s Federal Triangle section, the 1333 H Street site consists of the historic Real Estate Trust Building, constructed in the early 1900’s, and a more recent structure built in 1982, which is located above a subterranean parking garage.

As part of a comprehensive property condition assessment, SK&A’s Repair & Restoration Division performed a visual observation of the 12-story building’s exterior envelope, building structure and parking garage.

The parking garage survey included forensic testing of the concrete to evaluate the level of deterioration affecting the garage structure’s integrity.  To initiate a garage repair program, quantity summaries and budget estimates were also prepared. The suspended decks exhibited corrosion of the embedded steel reinforcing and electrical conduits, as well as severe deterioration of the metal decking and structural steel girders. The full garage repair program estimated various categories of full deck replacement and partial depth deck repairs, crack sealing and foundation mat partial depth surface patching. 

Representative areas of the roofs and skylight during the site inspection were also reviewed.  The gravel ballast and concrete pavers located in an isolated area of the main roof were pulled back in order to observe the condition of the membrane and to observe the quality of the roofing construction. Staged access to the exterior façades of the historic Real Estate Trust Building were conducted in order to perform close-up examination of the terracotta elements, masonry and windows. After reviewing prior façade restoration drawings, the building façade was determined to be in need of terracotta repairs and window replacement. The scope also included the replacement of skylights, the complete removal of the existing roofing system and replacement with a two ply SBS modified bitumen system in IRMA configuration.

Consequently, SK&A prepared bidding documents to cover each aspect of the building structure and envelope waterproofing repairs. Additional consulting services included: concrete and masonry repair and renovation; caulking and sealing; reinforcement repair; waterproofing and protection and  structural evaluation and repair.   

Kaiser Permanente Regional Headquarters & Laboratory

SK&A has performed structural engineering services on numerous projects for Kaiser Permanente, including its 168,000 sf medical office headquarters in Silver Spring, a new medical office building in Manassas, VA, the Regional Laboratory facility in Rockville, and the Silver Spring Data Center 2.

  • For the regional laboratory, an existing two-story medical office building was adapted for reuse as a laboratory facility.  The structure has concrete masonry unit (CMU) load-bearing walls supporting a steel bar joist and steel-framed roof and floor deck.  Sections of the 2nd floor and roof were strengthened to increase their load carrying capability, to suit laboratory and library usage, and to handle new roof-mounted equipment.  The project also included a new building addition at its northwest corner, and several new in-fill elevated floor areas.  The existing first floor of the building was demolished and lowered in its entirety to accommodate access flooring.  Existing masonry walls were structurally modified, and new openings incorporated into the walls.
  • In addition, since 1994, SK&A’s Repair and Restoration Division has provided engineering services on over 50 Kaiser projects including garage repair, expansion joint replacement, load evaluation, supplemental equipment support framing designs, façade repair, and general structural condition assessments.  SK&A also provided design and field inspection of a rooftop transfer girder installation, facilitating the removal of a ground level column in a conference room at the East Jefferson facility.

Children’s National Medical Center Additions and Renovations

From 1986 until today, SK&A has been the structural engineer-of-record for all of the new construction, alterations, and structural retrofit work that has been or is being built at the Children’s National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC.

Gross area of new floor design undertaken at CNMC by SK&A, either constructed or under construction, consists of approximately 570,000 sf of hospital, laboratory, administrative, and support spaces (exclusive of service levels within the hospital), and 230,000 sf of structured parking.

The various expansions of the CNMC have generally been in the form of lateral tower additions to the main building, several vertical extensions of the main hospital tower at several stages, and construction of various support faculties, utility upgrades (including a full retrofit of electrical systems), new rooftop heliport, new laboratory spaces, a new MRI unit on the second floor, and a new medical office building.

Liberty Center (Ballston Metro Station)

This 5.35 acre mixed-use development includes two office buildings, a residential tower with retail, and structured below-grade parking. Located at 675 Randolph Street in Arlington, VA, the first 13-story, 350,000 sf office building was completed in 2012 and includes a 250,000 sf structured parking garage for 600 cars that resides underneath.  The building is designed to meet Anti-Terrorism Force Protection (ATFP) standards for occupancy by a government agency.  

The 17-story residential tower was completed in 2014.  The 238,000 sf building has 256 units, 9,000 sf of retail, and a 120,000 sf structured parking garage for 272 cars. 

To be completed in 2016, the third building is an additional 20-story, 400,000 sf Class “A” office building.  Located at 4040 Wilson Boulevard, the structure will be the tallest office building in the Arlington corridor.  The development is certified at the Gold level under the LEED-ND (Neighborhood Development) pilot program.

City Vista (Wax Museum Site), 5th & K Streets, NW

Located on the former Old Wax Museum site and in walking distance to the Washington Convention Center, this mixed-use residential/retail development on the 3.2 acre site contains a total of 685 condominium and apartment units, a 55,000 sf Safeway grocery store, 65,000 sf of additional retail space, and 830 below-ground parking spaces.  The project’s residential units were divided among two condo buildings, “The K” and “The L”, both 12 stories, and one rental apartment building standing nine stories tall, “The V.”  Additional amenities for the residents include a rooftop pool, a large third floor courtyard landscaped with tree pits, a large truck loading dock serving the residential units and the retail rooftop terraces, and a second floor fitness center.

The design of the buildings entailed several structurally challenging features including the vertical transition of the building’s columns and walls from garage to retail and then to residential-architectural floor layouts.  A large amount of transfer girders and sloped columns were introduced on different levels of the structures to accommodate the transitions.  The Safeway grocery store beneath the residential building required 55,000 sf of two-story open space.  This necessitated 30-foot tall unbraced columns that support the residential building above.

Woodland Park Crossing

A very successful, open town center-style, mixed-use development on eight acres with residences, retail spaces, and multiple parking areas located on Sunrise Valley Drive in Herndon, VA.  Building #1 (355,000 sf) is a ground-level Harris Teeter grocery store with two levels of parking above and one level below the store.

Buildings #2 (13,200 sf) and #3 (34,600 sf) are two-story retail buildings.  Building #4 has 14,700 sf of ground floor retail with three levels of stick building residential above (50,000 sf).  Buildings 5A and 5B are both residential wood-framed residential buildings totaling 168,000 sf.