Parking Garage

The Yards, Parcel O

Situated in Washington, DC’s Capitol Riverfront neighborhood, The Yards is a 42-acre, 5.5 million sf mixed-use redevelopment featuring residential, office, and retail spaces as well as restaurants and a public park.  SK&A provided structural engineering services for two residential buildings being constructed simultaneously on Parcel O of the development.

The Bower, on Parcel O-1, is a 154,400 gsf, 10-story residential building with 138 condominium units.  Parcel O-2 is a 208,700 gsf, 10-story residential building with 198 units.  Both buildings feature ground floor retail, indoor amenity spaces, lobbies, green roofs, a public courtyard, and a shared two-level, underground parking garage with a flood-resistant design.

The buildings are being constructed over WMATA’s Green Line tunnels, which required that structural analyses be performed to demonstrate the tunnels’ capacity and stability to resist the forces imposed by the unloaded condition during construction and the final condition when the buildings are complete.  

8609 Westwood Center Drive Garage Repairs

SK&A provided a comprehensive condition evaluation, as well as recommendations for a garage repair and maintenance program for the 8609 Westwood Center Drive parking garage.  The garage has a total of a total of 467 parking spaces, including 15 handicapped-accessible spaces and 27 cycle spaces.  The survey performed by SK&A was limited to the elevated parking decks, exterior cladding, structural framing, stairwell, and the condition of post-tensioned tendons.  In addition, specialize concrete testing performed by Eastern Testing and Inspection included: chloride ion content testing per AASHTO T260, compressive core strength testing in accordance with ASTM C42/42M, and petrographic examination pursuant to ASTM C856-04, Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete.
In order to evaluate the extent of the structural damage and to establish repair budget estimates, SK&A performed a comprehensive sounding survey of the suspended decks to locate any latent delaminated concrete resulting from the corrosion of reinforcing steel.  Realistic repair boundaries were marked on the decks in accordance with the International Concrete Repair Institute Guidelines.  The repair sizes and locations of the top surfaces and soffits (underside) of the suspended garage decks, as well as observed deficiencies were also plotted on plan view drawings.  Other deficiencies noted during SK&A’s assessment of the facility included top surface as well as soffit concrete deterioration, corroded tendons and joint sealants, deteriorated traffic coating, a deficient stairwell, and cracked PT beams.

Garage 55 Dixon Avenue Extension

SK&A was the lead consulting engineer responsible for coordinating and planning the design efforts for the modification and extension of Garage 55 through Dixon Avenue.  The project involved the removal of portions of the structure in the second tier of parking, and modifications to the ground floor level in order to accommodate headroom for the southward extension of Dixon Avenue through the parking facility.  For this effort SK&A not only conducted a physical survey and structural design of the modifications, we led the team of professionals for the project development, design, and construction efforts.
Although the Developer had their civil engineers on board for the site development efforts, the Montgomery County Government authorized SK&A to engage our civil consultant AMT, to provide a peer review of the Developers’ design.  Additionally, AMT redesigned the relocated garage grease interceptors and worked closely with WSSC, ensuring the original terms and agreement under a “Mandatory Referral” between the County and the municipal water authority were maintained.  SK&A and AMT worked closely with Mr. Atiq Panjshiri from the Montgomery County Traffic Department, on the right-of-way agreement, road alignment, easement details and County maintenance responsibilities.  J&Z Engineers provided lighting studies for the street lighting program, and worked closely with PEPCO and the County’s street lighting department, in an effort to coordinate the lighting requirements relevant to each municipality.  ETI also provided testing and inspection services during construction of the modifications.

Garage 5 Slab Replacement and MEP Upgrade

Under a task order contract with the Montgomery County Department of Public Works and Transportation Division of Capital Development Services (DPWT), SK&A provided a detailed assessment of Parking Garage 5 located at 1110 and 1101 Bonifant Street in Silver Spring, MD.  The garage consists of five tiers of above-grade levels with a framing system containing 5” thick reinforced concrete slabs supported on composite structural steel beams and girders.  The survey performed by SK&A incorporated the elevated parking decks, exterior cladding, structural framing, stairwell, and stair/elevator roofs, MEP systems, and vertical conveyance.
The structural framing system and waterproofing items were observed to be in fair to poor condition, with certain components showing signs of severe physical distress, requiring significant remedial repairs or replacement.  The suspended decks were beginning to show signs of extensive spalling and analytical computations performed by SK&A, showed the structure is incapable of withstanding lateral loads induced by seismic forces.  MEP deficient items included a crumbling electrical grid which required a new PEPCO service feed.  For this effort, the existing electrical panels had to be retrofitted and the lighting levels were improved with new lighting and provisions for a new Uninterrupted Power Supply system (UPS) along with an air-conditioned UPS room, to maintain critical life-safety systems in the event of a power outage.  In addition, the outcome of lighting studies provided by J&Z Engineers resulted in new and energy efficient luminaries for the garage lighting upgrades, and traffic control plans for the phasing of the repairs were developed by AMT Civil Engineers.  

Kenwood Condominium Garage and Plaza Renovation

The Kenwood Condominium garage and plaza renovation involved the performance of major structural repairs and architectural modifications to a three-story, 91,000 sf, conventionally reinforced concrete parking structure with a 54,000 sf landscaped plaza on top of the parking structure.  The combination of original design deficiencies and a lack of regular maintenance rendered the concrete slabs and structural framing members in poor condition.  The visible signs of distress led the Owner to conduct a condition survey in 2011, which determined that wall-to-wall slab replacement was required for all elevated parking decks.  In addition to the complete replacement of the parking decks, significant repairs were also required to the concrete walls, beams and columns throughout the garage, as well as the elevated plaza slab.  Alterations to the original plaza structural design requiring modeling and calculations were performed as part of the plaza overhaul.  The plaza landscaping was completely redesigned and replaced, including full waterproofing replacement and structural analysis for the new loading conditions.

Other highlights of the project included infill of approximately three, 200 sf, punched openings in the plaza porte-cochere, and a selection of specialty lightweight soil/foam fill to reduce loading on the structure.  A new air shaft was installed in the garage by punching an approximately 40 square foot triangular opening through the plaza slab to create the opening, and providing new concrete support beams as framing around the large penetration.  The garage remained in-use during the wall-to-wall repairs, which required an intricate eight phase approach that maintained free ingress and egress of traffic as well as full parking capacity to accommodate the building residents.  In addition, complex custom coping and waterproofing design was performed at the garage/plaza perimeter around the original precast architectural concrete panels, to provide a watertight condition without a noticeable aesthetic impact.

Crystal Square Complex Parking Garage Repairs

The Crystal Square Complex in Arlington, Virginia consists of four office buildings and an apartment building bordered by Crystal Drive, 18th Street, 15th Street, and Jefferson Davis Highway in Crystal City.  The five high-rise structures sit atop three levels of subterranean parking used by the residential and commercial entities.  The upper two tiers of parking (G-2 and G-3 Levels) consists of one-way joist slab, flat slab construction, and post-tensioned normal weight concrete slabs with the lowest level (G-4) being a slab-on-grade.

SK&A performed a phased comprehensive condition appraisal of the garage complex that included a delamination survey and preparation of repair budget estimates.  Upon completion of each phase of the garage assessment, SK&A prepared repair construction documents pursuant to the cost budget and scope of repairs authorized by the owner.  SK&A’s construction documents detailed the requirements for the phasing of each of the five building garage sections, and for constructing the structural, MEP, architectural, and waterproofing repairs to the garage.  The documents consisted of drawings and specifications that included the quality level of materials and systems required for the repair program.  Bids were solicited on the Owner’s behalf and SK&A reviewed the received bids and provided recommendations for an award.

Transpotomac Canal Center Plaza, Garage, and Canal Lock Assessment and Renovations

SK&A was authorized by American Real Estate Partners (AREP) to proceed with an observation of the building structure, plaza, canal lock, and subterranean parking facility of the buildings comprising the Transpotomac Canal Center at 1119 North Fairfax Drive in Alexandria, VA.  The site contains four 10-story, Class-A office buildings, constructed in 1986, and originally designed by SK&A.  The survey performed by SK&A was limited to the structural features, waterproofing materials, the historic mouth fountain and canal lock, and architectural construction features.  Items related to civil engineering, ADA compliance, and mechanical, electrical & plumbing (MEP) infrastructure were evaluated by consultants under contract with the owner.

Based upon our visual observations and assessment, we found the building structure to be in good condition while the parking decks and plaza wearing surface are undergoing moderate to severe physical distress.  The major problem conditions noted during the survey areas are follows: water infiltration into the below grade structure, water infiltration through the plaza roof, leaks into the garage through the historic mouth fountain, seepage of ground water through the mat foundation slab, and extensive spalling of concrete in the parking deck slabs.  The observed deficiencies posed an imminent threat to the safe operations of the facility.  As such, the owners implemented SK&A’s recommendation, which is to move forward with a comprehensive plaza and parking garage restoration project beginning in year one of a ten year deferred maintenance program developed by SK&A.  

With respect to the garage and Canal Lock repair program, SK&A was the sole consultant spearheading the design, bidding, and construction administration efforts.  SK&A provided waterproofing and structural design services needed to restore the structural integrity of the parking facility.  The design featured the removal of all deteriorated concrete, corrosion inhibiting treatment, replacing expansion joint seals, and application of traffic membrane over the suspended parking decks.  Leaking cracks in the exterior foundation walls were injected with a hydrophilic grout and sealed from the interior.

The Calvert Apartments

SK&A provided comprehensive structural engineering services for the renovation and reconfiguration of The Calvert Apartments from a dated high-rise building, into a contemporary, mixed-use residential complex. The development features a central 16-story modernized tower with two new apartment buildings on each side as well as underground parking.

The new apartment buildings consist of four levels of post-tensioned concrete over a reinforced concrete retail level.  The first level above the retail floor is an 18” thick transfer slab.  The buildings also feature green roofs, amenities, and three levels of parking below ground.

The project totals 114,000 sf of residential space amongst the two new apartment buildings, 14,200 sf of retail space, 205,000 sf of underground parking for 522 cars and 193,000 sf of renovated residential space within the existing high-rise apartment building. The revitalization of the high-rise portion of the project was extensive and required multiple improvements, including:

  • Replacement of the building’s exterior skin 
  • Addition of a new roof parapet wall 
  • Design of a new building entrance canopy 
  • Enclosure of the existing ground level drive-through at the building entry and addition of four new units within that space
  • Underpinning of the existing building foundations along the new garage 
  • Replacement of the wall assembly with new curtain wall and arched roof profile 
  • Configuration of a new pool
  • Expansion of the existing penthouse levels
  • Modification of two existing elevators 
  • Addition of a new freight elevator and two new elevators to serve the low-rise residential
  • Demolishment of the first floor slab within the hi-rise; the floor was reconstructed to match the first floor level of the new low-rise 
  • Addition of new connection corridors between the new buildings, the hi-rise tower, and new loading dock areas

600 Massachusetts Avenue, NW

Located adjacent to the Washington Convention Center and close to Chinatown, SK&A recently completed structural design services for this new 12-story, concrete-framed Class “A” commercial office building.  Currently under construction, the structure includes 401,000 gsf of above-grade space, plus an additional 44,000 gsf of space on a below-grade concourse.  Parking is provided on three below-grade levels and totals approximately 132,500 gsf.  The project also required the relocation and restoration of two historic townhouses as additional office space. 

The building’s exterior facade incorporates natural stone, brick, and metal paneling along the glass curtain wall system.  Perimeter columns are spaced 30 feet apart for maximum openness and space.  Additional features include a light-filled lobby with stone flooring, wood and stone walls, and a water feature; floor plates with slab-to-slab heights of at least 11 feet; private balconies on five floors; and a rooftop terrace with an outdoor conference area.

ADA University Athletic Center and Student Housing

SK&A is providing structural engineering services for a new student housing and athletic center building for the ADA University in Baku, Azerbaijan.  The facility will be seven stories with two basement levels.

The building will also contain graduate and undergraduate student housing, guest housing, an athletic center, a bookstore, and a parking garage.  The athletic facility will include a basketball court, a fitness center, and a glass cube area.  The building structure will be poured-in-place reinforced concrete.